APTI Micro Bulletin 1

APTi is pleased to continually bring you individual articles from the Bulletin of Psychological Type! These small, easy-to-read pieces will arrive in your inbox as the “APTi Micro-Bulletin”. As an APTi member you will receive these periodic articles from the current issue of the Bulletin of Psychological Type and some of the most popular past articles. Enjoy!



The Preferences and Aspects of Counselling

By Rowan Bayne

(This article was originally published in the Winter 1992 Bulletin of Psychological Type, Vol. 15 No. 1)

The table below suggests links between each of the pairs of preferences in psychological type theory and aspects of being a counsellor. It is experimental, but a more complicated version has been used successfully in the USAfor teaching interviewing skills to nursing and medical students (Heinrich & Pfeiffer, 1989). I adapted their approach, first for selection interviewer training (Bayne, 1990), and then (below) for counsellor training. Heinrich and Pfeiffer use their version of the table as a framework for giving and receiving feedback. I have used it so far in a series of same-preference groups as a framework for discussing ourselves as interviewers or counsellors.

The model of counselling which emerges (or at least seems to emerge) from this application of type is a problem-management one of the kind associated with Egan (1975 & 1990). In its initial and simpler version, which I find the most useful, this model suggests three broad stages of counselling: 1) helping clients explore their reactions to a problem; 2) if necessary, helping the client see the problem in a different way; and 3) if necessary, helping the client take action.

Key terms in this model are, in Stage 1, Support (empathy, acceptance); in Stage 2, Challenge (new perspectives); and in Stage 3, Action (goal-setting). These stages and the skills associated with them all appear as likely strengths and weaknesses of particular preferences and almost in the order of the conventional type formula.

The table applies the twist in type theory: that strengths tend to have corresponding weaknesses. The main general principle is to develop and confirm your own type’s strengths first and most, and then to add, and to a lesser extent, the strengths of the other preferences.

Likely strengths Likely aspects to work on
E · Helping the client explore a wide

· range of issues

· Easy initial contact

· Thinking “on feet

· Paraphrasing* more

· Using silence

· Helping client explore issues in sufficient depth

· Reaching the action stage too early

I · Helping the client explore a few issues in depth

· Reflecting on strategies, etcetera

· Using silence

· Helping the client move to action

· Helping client explore all relevant issues

· Ease of initial contact

S · Observing details

· Being realistic

· Helping client decide on practical action plans

· Taking the overall picture into account

· Brainstorming (strategies, challenges, and actions)

· Using hunches

N · Seeing the overall picture

· Brainstorming

· Using hunches

· Being specific

· Testing hunches

· Helping client decide on practical action plans

T · Being objective

· Challenging (i.e., from counsellor’s frame of reference)

· “Picking up” feelings

· Being empathic (i.e., from client’s frame of reference)

· Being warmer

· Challenging in a timely way (not prematurely)

F · Being warm

· Being empathic

· Taking thoughts into account, as well as feelings

· Coping with conflict and “negative” feelings

· Being more objective

· Challenging in a timely way (not too slowly)

J · Being organised

· Being decisive

· Helping client to make decisions in a timely way (not prematurely)

· Being flexible

P · Being spontaneous

· Being flexible

· Being organised (keeping to time & structure of session)

· Helping client to make decisions in a timely way (not too slowly)

Association For Psychological Type – International,2415 Westwood Ave Ste B Richmond VA 23230, Phone Number:(804) 288-2950, Fax Number: , Email Address: trace@catapult-inc.com, Website :



President OAAPT
This entry was posted in Personality Type. Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s